For each of the following situations, calculate the amount of bond discount or premium, if any.
a. Gray Co. issued $80,000 of 6 percent bonds at 101¼.
b. Bush, Inc., issued $200,000 of 10-year, 6 percent bonds at 97½.
c. Oak, Inc., issued $100,000 of 20-year, 6 percent bonds at 103.
d. Willow Co. issued $180,000 of 15-year, 7 percent bonds at 99.